THE HOLY ROSARY
Historical and Devotional Developments of the Holy RosaryIntroduction:
Entering a church or a chapel, one sees a woman devotee before the statue of Our Blessed Mother, and there she holds the rosary slowly reciting its various prayers. In another corner, perhaps a mother with her child, both kneeling, face the altar gazing at the crucifix and praying the rosary. In a school corridor, as classes for the day have just ended, a Sister walks in silent meditation pacing back and forth passing her fingers on the rosary beads loosely tied around the waist of her habit. A similar setting could be glimpsed at the cloistered hall of an abbey where a monk with his hood on paces to and fro as he awaits the bell for the next choir prayer.
At certain homes, the family at the day's end or on weekends gathers together before the crucifix or the images of Christ and the Blessed Mother and meditatively says the rosary. Fr. Peyton in his Rosary Crusade has popularized the maxim: "The family that prays together stays together." Indeed, the members who have come to appreciate the devotional value of the rosary would still be somewhere on days or at later periods, but they remain one with each other through the praying of the Holy Rosary. Travelers use the rosary prayers by listening to tapes or CDs in cars. It is a good antidote to boredom and impatience amidst heavy traffic at rush hours. While waiting in line for an appointment or for the plane takeoff, devotees make good use of their time saying the rosary. It is done either with the use of regular beads, one's fingers, mental images or a decade-rosary ring.
Devotees as individuals or in faith-communities nowadays have gone a long way in expressing this traditional Catholic devotion. Aside from various ways by individuals in saying the rosary, there are communities or parishes on special occasions that organize the "Living Rosary". The participants themselves become the prayer beads gathered in a rosary form. The use of lights enhances the solemnity of the celebration. At the turn of the millennium, a number of Marian organizations have devised the "Rosary 2000" with a whole day praying of 2,000 Hail Marys for the intentions of the Holy Father, for peace in the world and other intentions.
The pilgrim march with the devotional rosary goes on in our contemporary times. Creative ways of praying it abound. Essentially, it is a prayer in Christ and the Blessed Virgin Mary on the mysteries of Christ's saving works for the world. The origin and development of this devotional prayer have come a long way too. Its history is rich and enlightening.
The Need to Pray
"Lord, teach us to pray" (Lk 11:1) was the disciples' request to Jesus as they saw that the group of John had a distinctive way of praying. Then Jesus taught them the "Our Father" (also called the Lord's Prayer, Mt 6:9-13; Lk 11:2-4). With the restless longing of a disciple's heart to reach out to his Creator, Jesus showed them how to pray. He taught them about prayer.....
From the Psaltery in Pebbles, Beads or Cords
- To the Paternosters
- To the Aves
- To the Rosary Beads
- Roles of the Religious Orders and Confraternities in the Spread of the Devotion
- Papal Pronouncements on the Holy Rosary
"Rosarium Virginis Mariae"
(Apostolic Letter of Pope John Paul II on the Holy Rosary)
(Issued on October 16, 2002, The Year of the Rosary)
(The numbers on the left-hand side in bold types indicate the sections of the apostolic letter. They act as guides for the reader in following the sequence of the papal letter. The outline presentation hopes to facilitate the understanding of this document which is rich in theological and pastoral insights. The apostolic letter itself serves as an excellent catechetical material on the Rosary.)
Rosary, Marian and ChristocentricThe Rosary of the Virgin Mary is a significant prayer to assist us in our spiritual journey to holiness, and "set out into the deep" (duc in altum, Lk 5:4)). It is Marian in character, but truly a Christocentric prayer. It is said to be a compendium of the deep Gospel message. It echoes the prayer of Mary, the Magnificat. In praying the Rosary, we sit at the school of Mary, contemplating on the beauty of Christ's face and experiencing the depth of his love. We receive abundant grace as from the hands of Mary the Mother of the Redeemer.
The Papal Documents on the RosaryJohn Paul II's predecessors highlighted the importance of the Rosary. Pope Leo XIII issued his encyclical Supremi Apostolatus Officio on September 1, 1883 indicating the Rosary as an effective spiritual weapon against the evils afflicting society. Blessed John XXIII and Pope Paul VI promoted the Rosary especially at the Second Vatican Council. Paul VI issued his Apostolic Exhortation Marialis Cultus emphasized the Rosary's evangelical character and its Christocentric inspiration. John Paul II himself who was devotee to the Rosary from his youthful years spoke much and highly of it as his favorite prayer. As it reflects on the principal events in the life of Jesus, the Rosary marks the rhythm of human life embracing all the events that make up the lives of individuals. In fact, his motto: Totus Tuus (All yours!) invokes the maternal protection of Mary in his Petrine ministry.
October 2002 - October 2003: The Year of the RosaryTo continue the reflections on the post-Jubilee experience mentioned in the Apostolic Letter of John Paul, Novo Millennio Ineunte, this reflection on the Rosary aims to contemplate with Mary the face of Christ. Two important anniversaries mark this year: the 120th anniversary of the Encyclical of Leo XIII (1883 -1 September - 2003), and the 40th anniversary of the opening of the Vatican II Council (1962 - 11 October -2002). On these occasions, the Rosary offers a fruitful spiritual and educational opportunity for personal contemplation, the formation of God's People and the new evangelization.
Objections to the Rosary
There is a need to counter a certain crisis on the understanding and devotional practice of the Rosary. Two objections are common:
- That with Vatican II's stress on the centrality of Liturgy, there is lesser importance to the Rosary.
Response: As Paul VI clarified, the Rosary sustains the Liturgy and it serves as an excellent introduction and a faithful echo of the Liturgy, enabling full and active participation of the people in the Liturgy which bears fruit in daily life.
- That the Rosary is unecumenical because it is Marian in character.
Response: Instead, it is a devotion directed to the Christological centre of the Christian faith, such that "when the Mother is honored, the Son is duly known, loved and glorified." (Lumen Gentium, 66).
- That with Vatican II's stress on the centrality of Liturgy, there is lesser importance to the Rosary. Response: As Paul VI clarified, the Rosary sustains the Liturgy and it serves as an excellent introduction and a faithful echo of the Liturgy, enabling full and active participation of the people in the Liturgy which bears fruit in daily life.
Why Encourage the Practice of the Rosary:
- A path of contemplation: The Rosary helps foster the commitment to the contemplation of the Christian mystery. It is a meditative prayer.
- A prayer for peace: We can ask God for the gift of peace as we contemplate on the mystery of Christ who is our peace.
- A prayer for the family - to combat the menaces threatening the primary cell of society.
- Mary our Mother wants to show her maternal concern through the Rosary, as she expressed in the apparitions in Lourdes and Fatima.
- Saints discovered the path to holiness through the Rosary, saints like St. Louis de Montfort, Padre Pio of Pietrelcina, and Blessed Bartolo Longo who got encouragements from Pope Leo XIII, the Pope of the Rosary.
Chapter I: Contemplating Christ with Mary
Contemplation: the task of every ChristianThe Transfiguration scene (Mt 17:2) is considered the icon of Christian contemplation. It is "to look upon the face of Christ, to recognize its mystery amid the daily events and the sufferings of his human life, and then to grasp the divine splendor revealed in the Risen Lord, seated in glory at the Father's right hand." Thus, we become open to receive the mystery of the Trinitarian life: seeing Christ's face, we experience the Father's love and the joy of the Holy Spirit.
Mary, model of contemplationMary serves as our model in contemplating Christ. From the Annunciation, her eyes of her heart were already turned to him as she conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit. At his birth, she was able to gaze tenderly at the face of her Son. Throughout his life, Mary's gaze was ever focused on him. It was a questioning look at finding him at the Temple (Lk 2:48). It was a penetrating gaze at the wedding at Cana (Jn 2:5). It was a look of sorrow as she stood beneath the Cross of her Son (Jn 19:26-27). But on Easter morning, her gaze radiated with joy at his Resurrection. At Pentecost, her gaze was afire with the outpouring of the Holy Spirit (Acts 1:14).
Mary's memories formed the "rosary" in her lifeWith her eyes fixed on Christ, Mary treasured his every word, pondering them all in her heart (Lk 2:19, 51). The memories of Jesus led her to reflect on the various moments of her life at her Son's side. They were to be the "rosary" which she recited throughout her life. Now that she is in heavenly Jerusalem, Mary sets before us the faithful these "mysteries" in the life of Her Son for us to contemplate and experience their saving power. In reciting the Rosary, the Christian community joins Mary in her memories and contemplative gaze at her Son.
The Rosary as a contemplative prayerStarting with Mary's own experience, the Rosary is an exquisitely contemplative prayer. Contemplation serves as the soul of the Rosary (Paul VI), lest it becomes a mechanical repetition of formulas. The recitation of the Rosary calls for a quiet rhythm and a lingering pace to help the individual to meditate on the mysteries of the Lord's life.
Here are certain insights that the Rosary is a form of Christ-centered contemplation:
Remembering Christ with Mary:Mary's contemplation is a above all a remembering, that is, in the biblical sense (of zakar), it is making present of the works brought about by God in the history of salvation. The events of "yesterday" are still part of the "today" of salvation. This process of making present happens in Liturgy, thus opening us to the grace of Christ won by his life, death and resurrection. Rosary as part of the Church's "ceaseless" prayer (I Thess 5:17) "meditates" with Mary on Christ. It is then a salutary contemplation.
Learning Christ from Mary:Christ is our supreme Teacher, the revealer and the one revealed. We learn from him, but we must also "learn him." While the Spirit is the interior teacher on learning Christ, Mary is the best teacher to introduce us to a profound knowledge of his mystery. At Cana, she serves under the guise of a teacher to the servants (Jn 2:5) for them to witness the first sign worked by Jesus her Son. By contemplating the scenes of the Rosary in union with Mary is then a learning process from her to "read" Christ, to discover his secrets and to understand his message. In the school of Mary, we can learn on our own pilgrimage of faith.
Being conformed to Christ with Mary:Through the Holy Spirit in Baptism, the believer is grafted to Christ (Jn 15:5) towards a growing assimilation in Him and a shaping of one's conduct in accordance with his "mind" (Phil 2:5). By contemplating Christ's face in the spiritual journey of the Rosary, we are being conformed to him. With Mary who is the Mother of Christ and the Mother of the Church, we can see how she can train us and mold us, like she did to Christ in Nazareth, until Christ is "fully formed " in us (Gal 4:19). The more we are consecrated to Mary, the more we are consecrated to Christ. In the Rosary, the life of Jesus and of Mary appears so deeply joined. Mary lives only in Christ and for Christ!
Praying to Christ with Mary:The basis for the prayer power is the goodness of the Father with the mediation of Christ and the working of the Holy Spirit. Mary intervenes too with her maternal intercession. The Cana experience with the changing of water into wine (Jn 2:3) is a clear example of Mary making known to Jesus the needs of others. In praying the Rosary, we have a meditationa dn a supplication. We pray to the Mother of God with the confidence that her intercession will obtain all things form the heart of Her Son. She is "all powerful by grace".
Proclaiming Christ with Mary:The recitation of the Rosary with all its elements for an effective meditation presents a significant catechetical opportunity in proclaiming Christ. Mary thus continues her work of proclaiming Christ.
Chapter II: Mysteries of Christ -Mysteries of His Mother
The Rosary - "a compendium of the Gospel"To contemplate the face of Christ, we need to listen attentively in the Spirit to the Father's voice. An experience of silence and prayer facilitates the reception of revelation on Christ's mystery. The Rosary acts as a Gospel prayer which is Christological in orientation. The litany becomes an unceasing praise of Christ. The succession of Hail Marys serves as the warp on which is woven the contemplation of the mysteries.
Proposed Addition to the Traditional PatternThe number of the 150 Psalms in the Psalter has become the traditionally approved form of the Rosary. However, to highlight the Christological depth of the Rosary, it could include the mysteries of Christ's public ministry between his Baptism and the Passion. He is then seen as the definitive revelation of God. In his public ministry, Christ's mystery is evidently a mystery of light (Jn 9:5).
The addition of the Mysteries of the Light completes the Rosary as a "compendium of the Gospel" to the traditional pattern on the Joyful, Sorrowful and Glorious Mysteries. It can be chronologically added after the meditation on the Joyful Mysteries and before the Sorrowful Mysteries. We are able to enter then through the Rosary to the depths of the Heart of Christ, ocean of joy and of light, of suffering and of glory.
The Joyful Mysteries:These mysteries are marked by the joy radiating from the events of the Incarnation. Messianic joy is the response to the Annunciation by the angel Gabriel to Mary on the good news of Christ's birth through her. Exultation is the atmosphere in Mary's Visitation of her cousin Elizabeth. Gladness fills the Bethlehem scene at the Nativity of the divine Child, the Savior of the world.
At the Presentation of the Child Jesus at the Temple, there is joy at his consecration. The ecstasy of the prophet Simeon however initiates the drama in his life with the prophecy of Jesus as "the sign of contradiction" for Israel. A sword will pierce his mother's heart. Then at the fifth mystery where the boy Jesus is found at the Temple, his revelation as fully dedicated to the Father's affairs brings about mixed reactions in Mary and Joseph, that of fear and anxiety, as they did not understand his words (Lk 2:50).
The joyful mysteries bring us then into the ultimate causes and the deepest meaning of Christian joy which is centered in Jesus Christ, the Savior of the world.
The Mysteries of Light:These mysteries focus on Christ as "the light of the world" (Jn 8:12) revealed during his public life and ministry. There are five significant "luminous" moments in his life which can be singled out as the five Mysteries of Light, namely, (1) his Baptism in the Jordan, (2) his self-manifestation at the wedding of Cana, (3) his proclamation of the Kingdom of God, with his call to conversion, (4) his Transfiguration, and (5) his institution of the Eucharist, as the sacramental expression of the Paschal Mystery. Each of these mysteries reveals the Kingdom now present in the very person of Jesus.
In these mysteries Mary's presence can be perceived in the background. However, her role at the wedding at Cana indicates her accompaniment of Christ throughout his ministry. Her words to the servants serve as her maternal counsel to the Church of every age: "Do whatever he tells you" (Jn 2:5).
The Sorrowful Mysteries:The Passion of Christ indicates the culmination of the revelation of God's love and the source of our salvation. The Rosary selects certain moments of this passion of Christ to help the faithful in contemplating these sorrowful mysteries in their hearts and relive them. Beginning with his agony at Gethsemane, his Yes to the Father's will reverses the No of our first parents at the Garden of Eden. The subsequent mysteries in his scourging, his crowning with thorns, his carrying of the cross and his death on the Cross reveal not only God's immense love but also the meaning of man himself. They help the believer to relive the death of Jesus, to stand at the foot of the Cross beside Mary, to enter with her into the depths of God's love for man and to experience all its life-giving power.
The Glorious Mysteries:Contemplation of the face of Christ goes beyond the image of the Crucified One into that of the Risen One. Through the Rosary, Christians rediscover the reasons for their faith and relive the joy of those to whom Christ appeared, and the joy of Mary herself who equally experienced the new life of glory of Her Son. We have the Resurrection and the Ascension of Christ where he sits at the right hand of the Father. We also have the Assumption and the Coronation of Mary His Mother as Queen of the Angels and the Saints. At the centre of this sequence of the glory of the Son and the Mother, we meditate on the Pentecost or the descent of the Holy Spirit which reveals the face of the Church as a family gathered together with Mary.
From the "mysteries" of Christ to the "Mystery" of the Incarnate WordEvery individual event in the life (or the "mysteries") of Christ meditated in the Rosary is resplendent with the Mystery that surpasses all understanding, namely, the Mystery of the Incarnate Word of God. The secret to knowing and understanding Christ is called Mary's way because of her faith, silence and attentive listening. It is the way of a Marian devotion inspired by the knowledge of the inseparable bond between Christ and his Blessed Mother.
Mystery of Christ is the mystery of man:By contemplating Christ through the various stages of his life, we perceive in him the truth about man. He is the true image of man who makes the passage from birth through public life and suffering and death into the glory of eternal life. It could be said that each mystery of the Rosary, carefully meditated, sheds light on the mystery of man. It is important then to bring into this encounter with the sacred humanity of Christ all the problems, anxieties, labors and endeavors which go to make up our lives. We hand over our burdens to the merciful hearts of Christ and his Mother. The Rosary then marks the rhythm of human life bringing into harmony with the rhythm of God's own life, in the joyful communion of the Holy Trinity, our life's destiny and deepest longing.
Chapter III: "For Me, To Live is Christ"
The Rosary is a way to assimilate the mysteryThe repetitive method is praying the Rosary assists in our assimilation of the mystery of Christ. If considered superficially, the repetition could be seen as a boring exercise. But it should be seen as an outpouring of the love for Christ, ever repeated but ever fresh and new in fervor. Take the case of Peter's triple repetition of love for Christ in response to the triple question by Jesus (Jn 21:15-17). In the recitation of the Rosary, although the repeated Hail Mary is addressed directly to Mary, the ultimate act of love is directed to Jesus with her and through her. Like St. Paul, we can say, "For me to live is Christ and to die is gain" (Phil 1:21). "It is no longer I that live, but Christ lives in me" (Gal 2:20). The Rosary helps us to conform ever more closely to Christ until we attain true holiness.
With the method involving the whole personBoth in liturgical and non-liturgical prayers, the rites and devotions engage the person in all his complex psychological, physical and relational dimensions. In the East, the Jesus prayer which focuses on the words, "Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner," links with the rhythm of breathing. It demands perseverance in prayer, but it expresses the desire for Christ to become the breath, the soul and the "all" of one's life. (28) In the West, there is a renewed demand for meditation which shows keen interest in some aspects of other religions. Care should be taken in adapting new approaches to meditation and contemplation. The Rosary is simply a method of contemplation, a means to an end. We avoid the risk of distorting the meaning and function even of the beads, not as a kind of amulet or magic object.
(29) The mysteries cited in the Rosary do not intend to eclipse the lectio divina or the reading of the Gospels; instead, they presuppose and promote it. They draw the mind to reflect more on the rest of the Gospel. (30) A good help for a biblical foundation on the mysteries of the Rosary could be the proclamation of a related Biblical passage, long or short, depending on the circumstances. This is not to recall information, but to allow God to speak to us. In certain communal celebrations, the word of God can be illustrated by a brief commentary. (31) Silence helps in the listening and meditation on the word. Its importance provides the key to the practice of contemplation and meditation.
Different Parts of the Rosary and their Significance
The "Our Father"After listening to God's word and focusing on the mystery, the mind can be lifted up towards the Father. With Christ, we say, "Abba, Father" (Rom 8:15; Gal 4:6). Through him in the Father, we relate to one another as brothers and sisters. The Lord's Prayer or Our Father makes then our meditation on the mystery an ecclesial experience, even when done in solitude.
The ten "Hail Marys"The recitation of the decades of Hail Marys comprises the most substantial element of the Rosary. It makes it a Marian prayer par excellence. The Marian character of the prayer, instead of opposing the Christological trait, simply emphasizes and increases it. The Hail Mary hinges as the centre of gravity in the prayer on the name of Jesus. In some regions, the name of Jesus is recited with the addition of a clause referring to the mystery being contemplated. The recitation becomes then a forceful expression of faith in Christ. Then at the close of the prayer, we entrust our life to Mary the Mother of Christ, the Mother of God (Theotokos) "now and at the hour of our death."
The "Gloria" and concluding prayerThe goal of Christian contemplation is Trinitarian doxology. Christ is the way that leads us to the Father in the Spirit. To emphasize the importance of the Gloria which is the high point of contemplation, it could be sung. The glorification of the Trinity at the end of each decade does not simply serve as a conclusion, but it sets the proper contemplative tone.
(35) After the Gloria, there is a concluding prayer which varies according to local custom. It is good to see that the prayer aims at the fruits specific to that particular mystery. In this way, a clear connection is shown with the Christian life.
Other particulars on the Rosary
- The traditional counting mechanism in reciting the Rosary, especially the succession of the Hail Marys is the set of beads. Other symbolisms used may take on added depth to contemplation. We note that the beads converge upon the Crucifix which both opens and closes the sequence of prayers. The life of a believer then is centered upon Christ. "Everything begins from him...leads towards him, attains through him in the Holy Spirit to the Father." The beads serve as a chain that links us to God. They remind us of the fraternal bond of communion in Christ.
- In introducing the Rosary, in some places the opening words of Psalm 70 ("O God, come to my assistance; O Lord, make haste to help me") are used to make us humbly aware of our own insufficiency. In other places, the Creed is recited. The Rosary then ends with a prayer for the intentions of the Pope to embrace the intentions of the whole Church. That is why, with this ecclesial dimension of praying the Rosary, the Church grants indulgences to those who recite it with proper dispositions. With Mary as our Mother, Teacher and Guide in this spiritual journey, we conclude in a joyful praise of the Blessed Virgin with the beautiful prayer of Salve Regina (Hail Holy Queen).
- The Rosary can be recited in full daily, thus making the day truly contemplative for those who can, especially the elderly and the infirm. It can also be recited in a distribution of the mysteries in different days throughout the week. With the addition of the mysteries of light, there is a new proposed schedule of days to pray the different mysteries according to particular associations with Marian devotions. Here then is the proposed list of days to recite the different mysteries: Monday and Saturday for the joyful mysteries; Tuesday and Friday for the sorrowful mysteries; Wednesday and Sunday for the glorious mysteries; and Thursday for the mysteries of light (luminous mysteries).
- Praying the Rosary is an efficacious prayer for deliverance, especially when Christianity is under threat. In our society today, we need to pray for the following intentions:
Peace in the world:Through the Rosary, we contemplate on Christ, the Prince of Peace. It has its peaceful effect on those who pray it. It produces the fruits of charity to lead us to encounter Christ and contemplate his face. It makes us peacemakers in the world.
The family, both the parents and children:The Rosary is also a prayer of and for the family. The practice of family prayer and prayer for families should be returned and maintained. The family that prays together stays together. Praying the Rosary will bring the family together as the members communicate with each other, show solidarity, forgive one another and love one another in the Spirit of God.
(42) The Rosary is a prayer to entrust the growth and development of children. It is good to pray it for them and with them, training them from their earliest years of experience daily "to pause for prayer" with the family.
- As an appeal to all of God's People, the ordained ministers, theologians, religious men and women, and the laity, the pope exhorts us to take up the Rosary once again. "Rediscover the Rosary in the light of Scripture, in harmony with the Liturgy, and in the context of your daily lives." We call on the Virgin Mary, Queen of the Holy Rosary for her loving intercessions always.
Issued from the Vatican on 16 October, 2002 by Pope John Paul II.
How to Pray the Rosary (with illustrations)
Prayers Commonly Used in Praying the Rosary:
Apostles' Creed:I believe in God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth,
And in Jesus Christ, His only Son our Lord, who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died and was buried. On the third day, he rose again. He ascended into heaven and sits at the right hand of the Father. From there he shall come to judge the living and the dead.
I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Holy Catholic Church, the communion of saints, the resurrection of the body and life everlasting. Amen.
The Lord's Prayer (Our Father):Our Father, who art in heaven, hallowed by thy name, thy kingdom come, thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread, and forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against us. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. Amen.
Hail Mary:Hail Mary, full of grace. The Lord is with you. Blessed are you among women and blessed is the fruit of your womb, Jesus.
Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death. Amen.
Glory Be (Doxology):Glory be to the Father, the Son and Holy Spirit.
As it was in the beginning, is now and ever shall be world without end. Amen.
Short Fatima Prayer:O my Jesus, forgive us our sins. Save us from the fire of hell. Lead all souls to heaven, especially those who need most thy mercy.
Hail Holy Queen:Hail, holy Queen, Mother of Mercy! Hail, our life, our sweetness and our hope, To you do we cry, poor banished children of Eve. To you do we send up our sighs, mourning and weeping in this valley of tears. Turn then, O most gracious Advocate, your eyes of mercy upon us. And after this, our exile, show unto us the blessed fruit of thy womb, Jesus. O clement, O loving, O sweet Virgin Mary.
Concluding Prayers:V. Pray for us, O Holy Mother of God,
R. That we may be made worthy of the promises of Christ.
Let us pray:
O God, whose only begotten Son, by his life, death and resurrection, has purchased for us the rewards of eternal life, grant, we beseech you, that by meditating on the mysteries of the Most Holy Rosary of the Blessed Virgin Mary, we may imitate what they contain and obtain what they promise through the same Christ our Lord. Amen.
Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary: (also called the Litany of Loreto)(It serves as an optional prayer after the Rosary. L= leader; R= response)
L. Lord, have mercy on us R. Christ, have mercy on us
Lord, have mercy on us.
Christ, hear us. Christ, graciously hear us.
L. God the Father of heaven, R. Have mercy on us.
God the Son, Redeemer of the world, Have mercy on us.
God the Holy Spirit, Have mercy on us.
Holy Trinity, one God. Have mercy on us.
L. Holy Mary, R. pray for us.
Holy Mother of God, pray for us.
Holy Virgin of virgins,...
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L. Virgin most prudent,... R. pray for us.
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